By Ursula Durand Ochoa
This booklet deals a comparative research of the exact reviews of the Peruvian and Bolivian cocaleros as political actors. In doing so, it illustrates how coca, an across the world criminalzsed strong, affected the trail and final result of cocalero political empowerment in every one case.
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Additional resources for The Political Empowerment of the Cocaleros of Bolivia and Peru
Coca beverages and elixirs from competitors soon appeared. Like Mariani, they marketed their products by citing coca’s medicinal qualities. James Pemberton of Atlanta developed the US version of Vin Mariani, Pemberton’s Wine Coca. He renamed the beverage Coca-Cola after having to produce a nonalcoholic version following the alcohol T H E C R I M I N A L I Z AT I O N O F C O C A A N D C O C A I N E 35 prohibitions in Atlanta in 1886 (Spillane 2000: 24–25). The first advertisement for Coca-Cola, published in the National Druggist in 1896, celebrated coca’s virtues: It seems to be a law of nature that the more valuable and efficacious a drug is, the nastier and more unpleasant its taste.
Composer and conductor John Philip Sousa wrote: When worn out or after a long rehearsal or a performance, I find nothing so helpful as a glass of Vin Mariani. To brain workers and those who expend a great deal of nervous force it is invaluable. (Sousa qtd. in Gagliano 1994: 113) Mariani developed several other products made from coca and earned a reputation as a world coca expert (Madge 2001: 71). Dr. W. : 68). Coca beverages and elixirs from competitors soon appeared. Like Mariani, they marketed their products by citing coca’s medicinal qualities.
These interactions culminated in the criminalization of coca in Bolivia and Peru through national legislation. The cocaine boom and subsequent War on Drugs then dramatically altered the nature of interactions between Bolivia, Peru, and the United States. It also changed national and international perceptions of coca, cocaine, and those entangled in its production and trade. This chapter demonstrates how the historical process leading to the criminalization of coca and cocaine in Bolivia and Peru shaped interactions between the state, society, consumers of coca, and producers of coca—and between the different states involved in this polemic.
The Political Empowerment of the Cocaleros of Bolivia and Peru by Ursula Durand Ochoa