By Nils Blomkvist
Работа посвящена исследованию вопроса о начале европеизации Балтийского края между 1075 и 1225 гг. Автор сравнивает местные цивилизации с западноевропейскими цивилизациями, проникновение которых на Балтику, стало обратным процессом после экспансивного периода походов викингов. Он выделяет важность реформистского католического движения и, косвенно связанного с этим, формирование прочного товарного рынка. Более подробно конфликты и компромиссы, возникавшие при контакте цивилизаций, рассматриваются на примере регионов: Калмарсунд, Готланд и долина Даугавы. Сравнение в различиях формирования государственности проведено на примере Швеции и Ливонии. Новый подход к источникам освещает проблемы отношений между скандинавскими, германскими, русскими, финно-угорскими и балтийскими народами.Образцы сканов:
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Additional info for The Discovery Of The Baltic: The Reception of a Catholic World-System in the European North (AD 1075-1225)
9–11, 17–20, 25–30; cf. particularly Haendler 1969 pp. 6–11 & passim. See also Hodges 1989 p. ; Reuter 1998). 16 The evaluation of trade has varied a great deal. See Lunden 1974; Christophersen 1989 pp. ; Andrén 1989; A. Carlsson 1983, p. ; Hodges and Whitehouse 1983; Hodges 1989; P. Sawyer 1985a, pp. ; Hårdh 1996; I. ] 1997; Andrae 1985, Klackenberg 1992. Cf. Christophersen 1989 40 chapter two Even so, it remains diﬃcult to tell which chain of activities brought the silver to its ﬁnal depot. To be scientiﬁcally scrupulous, we should perhaps take a reductionist view and operate with the broader concept of a mobile stratum within the Viking-age economy which transported and distributed commodities over long and short distances.
CHAPTER TWO THE CATHOLIC WORLD-SYSTEM. A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO EUROPEANIZATION 1. From Viking Age to European High Middle Age: A Proﬁle of Change The Baltic Rim before Europeanization. A discussion In 1973–74, when OPEC threw its weight about for the ﬁrst time, a whole millennium had passed since the Arab world had disengaged from its previous economic hold over northern Europe. Rich hoard ﬁnds show that Arabian silver ﬂowed into the Baltic Rim during the 9th and 10th centuries, the very period when Vikings held large parts of the Carolingian Empire and England in their grasp and the Rurikid dynasty was established in Novgorod-Kievian Russia.
Examples are the narrative of the Arab emissary Ibn Fadlan, who in 921–22 encountered merchants of the Rus on the Volga, or the works of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus who describes the entire trading system of the Rus in De administrando imperio (around 950). 7 The classical explanation by Sture Bolin launches Nordic east-west trade as a major factor in European relations to the Muslim world. 8 3 Stenberger 1946 & 1957; Östergren 1989. Most clearly demonstrated by the map in Bolin 1962 p.
The Discovery Of The Baltic: The Reception of a Catholic World-System in the European North (AD 1075-1225) by Nils Blomkvist