By Robert Allen Meyers (Editor)
9 years has handed because the 1992 moment version of the encyclopedia was once released. This thoroughly revised 3rd version, that is a college point compendium of chemistry, molecular biology, arithmetic, and engineering, is refreshed with quite a few articles approximately present learn in those fields. for instance, the recent variation has an elevated emphasis on details processing and biotechnology, reflecting the speedy development of those parts. the continued Editor-in-Chief, Robert Meyers, and the Board ready a brand new topical define of actual technology and know-how to outline entire insurance. part editors are both Nobel Laureates or editors of key journals of their fields. extra Board contributors representing the worldwide clinical group have been additionally recruited.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology - Plasma Physics
This rate is smaller than the electron scattering rate by approximately the electron to ion mass ratio. Another peculiarity of plasma collisions is that if the speed V of the particle being scattered is greater than the thermal speed √ VT ≡ T /m of the species on which it is scattering, then the collision frequencies are reduced by approximately (VT /V )3 . The slowness of the electron/ion equilibration implies a plasma can have near-Maxwellian electrons and ions but with two distinct temperatures and two distinct entropies.
Since the equilibrium equation, ∇ p = j × B, is independent of the adiabatic index γ , one can choose the index to have the nonphysical value of zero while calculating equilibria. If this is done, the pressure remains a fixed function of the toroidal flux throughout the relaxation, p(ψt ). The ideal Ohm’s law conserves the poloidal flux as a function of the toroidal flux and, therefore, the rotational transform ι(ψt ) ≡ dψp /dψt . An equilibrium solver based on the relaxation of the energy uses the functions pressure p(ψt ) and the rotational transform ι(ψt ) to specify the equilibrium.
1), an external magnetic field is required to support a plasma equilibrium. In the case of the axisymmetric tokamak, this field strengthens the poloidal component of the magnetic field (the component that encircles the torus the short way around) on the outboard side of the torus and weakens it on the inboard side. The stronger poloidal field on the outboard side implies the distance between poloidal flux contours is smaller there. Since the pressure is a function of the poloidal flux alone, p(ψp ), the center of the plasma is shifted toward the outboard side of the torus.
Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology - Plasma Physics by Robert Allen Meyers (Editor)