By Mahin D. Maines
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Extra info for Current Protocols in Toxicology
4. As appropriate, the sequence of analysis outlined in the decision trees (see Figs. 4) is followed. Clinical Pathology Statistical Approaches to the Design of Toxicology Studies A number of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters are now assessed in the blood and urine collected from animals in chronic toxicity studies. In the past (and still, in some places), the accepted practice has been to evaluate these data using univariant-parametric methods (primarily t-tests and/or analysis of variance, ANOVA); however, it can be shown that this is not the best approach on a number of grounds.
1. A large number of compounds must be evaluated; therefore, ease and speed of performance (which may also be considered efficiency) are major desirable characteristics. 2. The screen must be very sensitive in its detection of potential effective agents. , there should be very few false negatives (in other words, the type II error rate, or beta level, should be low). Stated another way, the signal gain should be significantly elevated. 3. , that there be a low type I error rate, or alpha level).
Transgenic technology is rapidly evolving, and future developments will allow scientists the opportunity to address difficult questions in toxicology where no specific targets have been identified. It must be remembered that animal systems are not passive, and along with technical advancements intensive studies must be undertaken to understand how specific gene expression is controlled. Understanding toxic mechanisms is difficult because of the complexity of animal systems, and extrapolation between species is generally speculative.
Current Protocols in Toxicology by Mahin D. Maines