By Francis E. Hyde
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Additional info for Cunard and the North Atlantic 1840–1973: A History of Shipping and Financial Management
26 To do this necessitated a series oftests and adjustments, while the ship was in service. " Apart from the above measures designed to increase the power Cunard and the No rth A tlantic 1840-1973 and safety of engines, there wa s a wide range of improvements co nce rne d with bett er meth od s of lubrication , stro nger bearings and a wide r use of steel, all making for safer ocean travel. T echnical devices were also buttressed by an increasing interventi on from th e State . After J 870 the provision s of the Passenger Acts were par alleled by a code of rul es cov ering varying typ es of marine machiner y and enforced by periodic Board of Trade surveys.
The arguments, however, were not confmed to the commercial plane; Samuel Cunard 36 C linard and the North A tlantic 1840-1 973 found him self in th e pro cess of sustaini ng his contract between the cross-fire of th e Admiralt y and th e Post Office. The latter govern ment department reject ed C unard's oft- repeated assertion that his larg e subsidy wa s completely cover ed by th e postages paid on the mail s th at he carried. " Against some £ 188,000 paid out only £I2 1,000 had been received.
P. 7 It seems reasonable, by way of confirmation of the view already expressed, to conclude that the Cunard Company did not accept iron-screw ships into their services until both the technical and commercial feasibility of such ships had been adequately demonstrated. In this respect, they were subject to government decision. ' In1853 they gave reluctant permission to P . and O . to build a screw steamer but did not give permission to Cunard until rSoz. In that year China was the first screw steamer laid down for the Atlantic mail service though iron-screw steamers were accepted into Cunard service from 1852 and were employed in the Mediterranean and ancillary services.
Cunard and the North Atlantic 1840–1973: A History of Shipping and Financial Management by Francis E. Hyde