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By John E. Flipse

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Government Printing Office).  These winter storms are more severe than the summer storms, with the result that the predominant drift is southward along the south Atlantic coast (Johnson, 1981).  At the easterly approach to the Golden Gate in San Francisco, the velocity of the tidal current increases with the constriction of the seaway, and sand waves occur in depths between 48 ft and 51 ft, having average lengths from crest to crest of 240 ft and heights varying from 6 ft to 17 ft. These waves do not now appear to present a problem, because the channel depths where sand waves occur are less than the 50 ft depths maintained in the balance of the dredged channel across the San Francisco Bar.

Figures 7a and 7b are computer simulations; Figure 7c shows the results of marine trials.  SNAME, 79: 88.  ASCE, 97 (WW3): 486.  SNAME, 87: 231.  (1979), and at Galveston and Philadelphia it is near the minimum. Moreover, the predicted values may differ from those observed (predicted and observed high­water levels differed by more than a foot 79 times in Baltimore in 1981). 5 percent for many ships in the navigational channels of major domestic ports and harbors.  Wang (1980) notes that for swells occurring in the predominant direction at the entrance channel of the Columbia River, an ebb tide tends to steepen the wave front and may cause it to break, whereas a flood tide tends to lengthen the swell and reduce the likelihood of breaking.

Johnson (1981) discusses several modes of deposition at harbor entrances and summarizes the problem of transport by littoral currents. Interior and exterior processes are associated with different types of material as well as transport mechanisms; thus, they may represent different dredging problems.  It is believed that as much as 80 percent of the material moved by wave action is moved in the area shoreward of the breaking point.  By its very nature, the material usually forms relatively firm deposits (or shoals), with a well­defined boundary between the sea and the bottom.

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Criteria for the depths of dredged navigational channels by John E. Flipse

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