By Stephanie Urdang
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Extra resources for And They Still Dance: Women, War, and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique
Raffenel even went so far as to favorably compare religion in Bundu with that in Futa Toro: "The Mohammedan religion is practiced in Bundu with more loyalty and sincere faith than in Futa ... 38 Islam in Bundu gradually evolved into the pervasive force that it was by the beginning of the nineteenth century. 39 According to them, the tdlibs were in fact educators who ran the schools and led the public prayers. The imams ceremonially presided over successions and served as judges; the tamsirs were intermediate judges between the imams and the Almaami (head of the Bundunke state), and presided over courts of appeal.
These totemic markers of identity would fall into disuse with conversion to Islam, but not completely. It is probable that very few representatives of the nobility from any of these communities remained in (or migrated to) Bundu, and those few who did, if they were to retain upper class prerogatives within the context of the Bundunke polity, probably joined the Torodbe community, from which emerged Bundu's political leadership (and about which more will be said in chapter 2). In any case, it is difficult to imagine how the nobility of separate ethnic groups could have maintained their existence in the face of a newly constituted state with its own ruling and noble classes.
Therefore, as a consequence of its very location, the economic imperative that would shape Bundu's government policy was all but inescapable. 14 In fact, Bundu is not a vast forest, but rather a land of four physically distinct zones. Towards the southern portion of the state, one experiences dense growth and undulating hills, along with extreme heat and humidity. As one proceeds from south to north, the land gradually flattens out into an increasingly sparsely covered plain, characterizing the central and northern sections of the realm, and constituting a single, second zone (in the north, towards the Senegal River, the land becomes somewhat hilly again, and the climate more arid).
And They Still Dance: Women, War, and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique by Stephanie Urdang