By Diane Larsen-Freeman
Realizing how humans study and fail to benefit moment and international languages is more and more recognized as a severe social and psycholinguistic factor. moment languages are extremely important to varied teams of individuals, starting from refugees to varsity scholars dealing with international language requisites. This publication presents a synthesis of empirical findings on moment and international language studying via young children and adults, emphasising the layout and execution of acceptable research.
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Extra resources for An introduction to second language acquisition research
Make a list of questions you have about the SLA process. Although we do not promise answers for all, or even any, of them, making a list will help you to identify gaps in your knowledge and will provide you with an initial framework from which to organize what you encounter in subsequent chapters. As you continue to read, this framework, no doubt, will have to be refined. Notes 1. We say recent history because as Stern (1983) has rightfully pointed out, modern SLA researchers were not the first to discover the SLA learner.
As with participant observation, the subjects are usually few in number and the period of study relatively long. In the SLA field, non-participant observations are usually referred to as longitudinal case studies, the classic example being Leopold's study of his daughter's simultaneous acquisition of English and German during the period 1939-49. Leopold made a daily record of his observations, resulting ultimately in a monumental four-volume work. ) Both participant and non-participant observation have many positive qualities to recommend them as research methodologies.
H. who have survived courses in which early versions of this text were used; Joy Wallens for her tireless dedication to the preparation of the manuscript; and last, but not least, to our family members, Elliott, Brent and Gavin Freeman, and Charlene Sato, for putting up with our excuses for too long. To all these folks, we offer heartfelt thanks. Diane Larsen-Freeman School for International Training Michael H. Long University of Hawaii 30 31 Acknowledgements We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Holt, Rinehart and Winston for a diagnostic passage from Manual of American English Pronunciation by Clifford Prator and Betty Wallace Robinett; JHWPESL for a table (Experimental studies of the effect of input modification on comprehension) from 'The effects of linguistic simplifications and elaborative modifications on L2 comprehension' by K.
An introduction to second language acquisition research by Diane Larsen-Freeman