By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
What precisely are phrases? Are they the issues that get indexed in dictionaries, or are they the fundamental devices of sentence constitution? Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy explores the results of those various ways to phrases in English. He explains many of the ways that phrases are with regards to each other, and indicates how the heritage of the English language has affected observe constitution. issues contain: phrases, sentences and dictionaries; a note and its elements (roots and affixes); a notice and its types (inflection); a note and its kin (derivation); compound phrases; note constitution; productiveness; and the historic assets of English note formation.
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Additional info for An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure
5 how a morpheme’s peculiar allomorphy can be crucial in establishing its existence. ). Therefore, according to the formula given above, the allomorph of the plural sufﬁx that appears on them should be [s]. And this is correct. But what about wife and loaf ? These end in the same voiceless consonant as laugh and cliff; yet their plurals are not *wifes and *loafs but wives and loaves. ) In fact, there are quite a few nouns which, in the singular, end in a voiceless f, s or th sound but which change this in the plural to the voiced counterpart (not always reﬂected in the spelling).
Seems to be a pure accident. However, this shared pattern of allomorphy is just what we expect if -duce is a root morpheme that they all share (one of its allomorphs being -duct-), while they differ preﬁxally. g. 4. Some of the nouns and verbs that I have just claimed to be related do not have much to do with each other semantically, one must admit. For example, the meaning of conduce (a rather rare verb) has nothing to do with that of conduction, and the noun that seems most closely related to involve is not involution (another rarity) but involvement.
Nevertheless, the correlation is sufﬁciently close to justify regarding zero-plurals as in some degree regular, obeying a minority pattern of plural formation that competes with the dominant pattern of -s-sufﬁxation. 2 I made the point that only some nouns have plural forms, namely nouns that refer to entities that are countable. That is why the forms cats and pianists exist, but not *astonishments or *rices – except perhaps in contexts where they can be interpreted as denoting countable entities, such as astonishing events or varieties of rice.
An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure by Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy