By Eric T. Wong
This concise textual content offers a whole evaluation of alternating electrical fields remedy -- often referred to as tumor treating fields -- for glioblastoma and different kinds of good tumor malignancies. Readers are given a primary figuring out of this novel anti-cancer therapy modality via studying from scientific trial facts in addition to the actual and telephone biology results on tumor cells while alternating electrical fields are utilized either in vitro and in vivo.
Chapters illustrate the physics in the back of electrical box propagation in house and different media. this is often by means of a assessment of our present knowing of the electrical box results on dividing cells - together with the disruption of cytokinesis, right chromosome segregation and activation at the telephone floor chaperons that result in immunogenic phone demise. info from section III trials for the therapy of recurrent and newly clinically determined glioblastomas are integrated, in addition to a few of the ancillary post hoc analyses that have been played by way of numerous investigators. the rest of the bankruptcy covers different reliable tumor malignancies, together with non-small cellphone lung melanoma, pancreatic melanoma and ovarian melanoma, as this therapy modality is being utilized to systemic malignancies.
Alternating electrical Fields remedy in Oncology deals oncologists, neurologists, radiation oncologists, biomedical engineers, cellphone biologists and mitosis researchers the basics wanted for medical practice.
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Additional info for Alternating Electric Fields Therapy in Oncology: A Practical Guide to Clinical Applications of Tumor Treating Fields
Once again, the capacitor with the CSF as a dielectric medium will discharge, or approach electrostatic equilibrium, at a faster rate than the capacitor with the gray matter as the dielectric. This ability for a medium to charge and discharge can be expressed as capacitive reactance, 2 Fundamental Physics of Tumor Treating Fields 25 which is the resistance to change in electric potential in a capacitor (Eq. 13) For a constant direct current, which does not vary with time, the frequency component is 0, and therefore reactance does not apply.
2 by replacing (1) the current, I, with the current density, J ; (2) the inverse of the electric resistance, R, with the tissue-dependent conductivity, σ; and (3) the electric potential with the electric field E (Eq. 4). This is made possible by satisfying Poisson’s equation for electrostatics (Eq. 3), which states that the electric field is equivalent to the negative spatial gradient of the electric potential field φ. Hence, the greater the change in electric potential results in a more intense electric field.
Wong, and Erno Sajo Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) use frequency-tuned alternating electric fields at 200 kHz that disrupt tumor cells as they undergo mitosis. The targets of these fields are proteins such as α/β tubulin and septin that have high dipole moments. In the patient, TTFields are applied on the scalp by two pairs of orthogonally positioned transducer arrays. Because the energy delivered by TTFields is relatively low, the electric field is spatially distorted by variations in the local conductivity and relative permittivity of tissues and fluid cavities within the brain.
Alternating Electric Fields Therapy in Oncology: A Practical Guide to Clinical Applications of Tumor Treating Fields by Eric T. Wong