By Elad Barkan, Eli Biham, Adi Shamir (auth.), Cynthia Dwork (eds.)
This publication constitutes the refereed lawsuits of the twenty sixth Annual foreign Cryptology convention, CRYPTO 2006, held in Santa Barbara, California, united states in August 2006.
The 34 revised complete papers awarded including 2 invited lectures have been conscientiously reviewed and chosen from 250 submissions. The papers tackle all present foundational, theoretical and learn elements of cryptology, cryptography, and cryptanalysis in addition to complex applications.
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Extra info for Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2006: 26th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, California, USA, August 20-24, 2006. Proceedings
The new strong one-way function simply consists of many independent copies of the weak function concatenated to each other. The solution of Yao, however, incurs a blow-up factor of at least ω(1)/α(n) to the input length of the strong function3 , which translates to a signiﬁcant loss in the security (as in the case of pseudorandom generators). With this security loss in mind, several works have tried to present an eﬃcient method of ampliﬁcation from weak to strong. Goldreich et al. [GIL+ 90] give a solution for one-way permutations that has just a linear blowup in the length of the input.
N. Nisan and D. Zuckerman. Randomness is linear in space. Journal of Computer and System Sciences (JCSS), 52(1):43–52, 1996. S. Phillips. Security preserving hardness ampliﬁcation using PRGs for bounded space. Preliminary Report, Unpublished, 1993. A. C. Yao. Theory and application of trapdoor functions. In 23rd FOCS, pages 80–91, 1982. J. il Abstract. , RSA or DSA). The goal is to free practical digital signature schemes from their current reliance on strong collision resistance by basing the security of these schemes on signiﬁcantly weaker properties of the underlying hash function, thus providing a safety net in case the (current or future) hash functions in use turn out to be less resilient to collision search than initially thought.
Hence, there is no eﬃcient algorithm that can distinguish between G(x) and a truly random string of length |G(x)| with more than a negligible probability. Originally introduced in order to convert a small amount of randomness into a much larger number of eﬀectively random bits, pseudorandom generators have since proved to be valuable components for various cryptographic applications, such as bit commitments [Nao91], pseudorandom functions [GGM86] and pseudorandom permutations [LR88], to name a few.
Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2006: 26th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, California, USA, August 20-24, 2006. Proceedings by Elad Barkan, Eli Biham, Adi Shamir (auth.), Cynthia Dwork (eds.)