By Filippo Cacace, Gianfranco Lamperti (auth.)
This quantity goals to give fresh advances in database expertise from the point of view of the unconventional database paradigms proposed within the final decade. It specializes in the idea of the prolonged relational version and an instance of a longer relational database programming language, Algres, is defined. A loose replica of Algres enhances this paintings, and is on the market on the web.
Audience: This paintings may be of curiosity to graduate scholars following complicated database classes, complicated data-oriented functions builders, and researchers within the box of database programming languages and software program engineering who desire a versatile prototyping platform for the advance of software program instruments.
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Additional info for Advanced Relational Programming
Cyclical paths in the schemas are not allowed: the schema of a nested relation can therefore be conveniently represented as a tree, where the root is the name of the external nested relation, simple attributes are represented as leaves and complex attributes correspond to internal nodes. It is worth observing that in this model nested relations and complex attributes have 24 Chapter 2 Overview ofRecent Evolution in Database Technology exactly the same properties as far as their structure is involved: we used the same definition for both of them.
Ak: Dk) where each D; is an atomic domain. In the nested data model (also called non-firstnormal-form NFNF, NP or -,lNF) attribute values can be nested relations themselves, with unbounded depth. ; Ah ': 1j, end. From now on we will make use of a more compact notation, with parentheses 0 instead of the keywords relation and end. We will also omit the atomic domains when they are irrelevant. As the notation suggests, the notion of nested relations is the natural extension of the notion of flat relation.
In semantic data models this relationship can be explicitly specified by means of an entity-relationship diagram, like that displayed in Figure 2-1. Observe that the entity-relationship diagram of Figure 2-1 is semantically richer than the relational schema composed of relations Student, Course , and StudCourse. Like relations, entity-relationship diagrams allow the specification of attributes for both entities and relationships, which, for the sake of simplicity, are not shown in our diagram. As one can see, there is a clear distinction between entities and relationships : the former correspond to objects of the real world, while the latter are intended to model conceptual links between objects of the real world.
Advanced Relational Programming by Filippo Cacace, Gianfranco Lamperti (auth.)