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Accid. Anal. for Nuclear Powerplants by PDF

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Example text

The spectrum of accident scenarios to be analysed for PSA is typically broader than that for licensing purposes. In a PSA, all plant operational states including shutdown modes are considered; events beyond the design basis are also taken into account and various multiple failures (beyond the single failure criterion) and common cause failures are considered. From the phenomenological point of view, the analysis is more complicated because more complex thermohydraulic and core phenomena occur. The acceptance criteria used for licensing calculations of DBAs are not applicable here.

However, such an interpretation is really only valid if the variations reflect the uncertainty estimates in significant parameters and if the uncertainties in the models used to propagate the results of such variations are negligible. Expert judgement and early sensitivity studies have identified which accident sequences need to be included in analyses of DBAs and, in some formalized approaches, which phenomena need to be considered in the estimation of code uncertainties. In some cases, sensitivity options have been included in the codes which allow code users to obtain results of best estimate analyses together with sensitivity estimates associated with important code input parameters.

The analyses need to be performed in sufficient detail to define the changes in strategy or to resolve the additional specific items. During the development of the strategy, sensitivity analyses on the timing of operator actions need to be performed. The results of the analyses are used for the assessment of time margins and the optimization of procedures. After the development of EOPs has been completed, a validation analysis needs to be performed. These analyses confirm that the actions specified in the procedures could be followed in the appropriate time and manner by a trained operator and that the expected response of the system is achievable, resulting in the final safe state of the reactor system.

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Accid. Anal. for Nuclear Powerplants

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