By Henry Pollack
A cowinner of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize bargains a clear-eyed clarification of the planet's imperiled ice.
a lot has been written approximately worldwide warming, however the an important dating among humans and ice has acquired little focus-until now. As one of many world's major specialists on weather swap, Henry Pollack offers an available, finished survey of ice as a strength of nature and the aptitude results as we are facing the opportunity of a global with out ice.
A global with out Ice lines the impression of mountain glaciers on provides of consuming water and agricultural irrigation, in addition to the present result of melting permafrost and shrinking Arctic sea ice-a scenario that has degraded the habitat of various animals and sparked a world race for seabed oil and minerals. Catastrophic chances loom, together with emerging sea degrees and next flooding of low-lying areas world wide. A international with no Ice solutions our such a lot pressing questions about this pending drawback, laying out the required steps for coping with the unavoidable and keeping off the unmanageable.
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The quality of uterine contractions should be regularly assessed. Cervical examinations should be kept to the minimum required to detect abnormalities in the progression of labor. Maternal BP and pulse should be recorded every hour during the first stage of labor and every 10 minutes during the second stage of labor. 1. Well-controlled studies have shown that, when performed at specific intervals with a 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio, intermittent auscultation of the fetal heart is equivalent to continuous electronic monitoring in assessment of fetal well-being.
B. The second stage of labor is the interval between full cervical dilation and delivery of the infant. The average duration is 50 minutes for nulliparas and 20 minutes for multiparas. Descent of the fetal presenting part begins in the late active phase and continues during the second stage. The second stage is considered prolonged after 2 hours in nulliparous patients or 1 hour in parous patients. An additional hour may be allowed if epidural anesthesia is used. Studies show that duration of the second stage of labor is unrelated to perinatal outcome in the absence of a nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern or traumatic delivery.
Successful interventions emphasize ways to stop smoking rather than merely providing antismoking advice. 4. Nicotine replacement therapy (chewing gum or transdermal patch). The package inserts of these therapies suggest that pregnant women should not use them because nicotine is considered an important cause of the adverse effects of smoking on mothers and fetuses. Nicotine, however, is only one of the toxins absorbed from tobacco smoke; cessation of smoking with nicotine replacement reduces fetal exposure to carbon monoxide and other toxins.
A World Without Ice by Henry Pollack